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Copper Sulfate

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Copper(II) Sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5. The pentahydrate (x = 5) is the most common form. Older names for this compound include "blue vitriol", "bluestone", "vitriol of copper", and "Roman vitriol".

The Copper Sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. It exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Cu(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry. The structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a polymeric structure wherein copper is again octahedral but bound to four water ligands. The Cu(II)(H2O)4 centers are interconnected by sulfate anions to form chains. Anhydrous copper sulfate is a white powder.

Analytical reagent
Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars. It is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins. Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia.

In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep green light, a much deeper green than the flame test for barium.

Organic synthesis
Copper sulfate is employed in organic synthesis.

Feed and Food Additive
It can be used in food or Feed Additives. It corrects copper deficiencies in the soil and animals and stimulates farm animals' growth.

Copper sulfate is used as an anti-fungal agent to protect seeds against fungus and to protect horse hooves from infection. It inhibits growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.

Copper sulfate is used to etch zinc or copper plates for intaglio printmaking. It is also used to etch designs into copper for jewelry, such as for Champlevé.

Copper sulfate can be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. It often highlights the green tints of the specific dyes.

Copper sulfate crystalCopper sulfate pentahydrate

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